Indeks Kemerdekaan Pers Menurun, Kekerasan Terhadap Jurnalis Meningkat, Kebebasan Pers Terancam?

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ONews-id com (Sumsel)-Kebebasan pers di Sumsel mengalami penurunan yang cukup siginifikan dibandingkan tahun 2022. Hal ini terbukti dari data Indeks Kemerdekaan Pers (IKP) 2023 yang dikeluarkan oleh Dewan Pers.

Berdasarkan data IKP Dewan Pers, kebebasan pers di Sumsel tahun 2023 yaitu 70,83 poin. Angka ini menurun hingga 10,58 poin dibandingkan tahun 2022. Meski masih berada di kategori cukup bebas. Namun, kebebasan pers di Sumsel berada di peringkat 31 dari 34 provinsi di Indonesia.

Menurut data Dewan Pers, penurunan IKP ini terjadi di tiga kondisi lingkungan yaitu, lingkungan fisik politik, lingkungan ekonomi dan lingkungan hukum.

Untuk Sumsel sendiri, lingkungan fisik dan Politik berada di peringkat 32 dari 34 provinsi. Kemudian, lingkungan ekonomi di peringkat 28 dari 34 provinsi. Sedangkan, lingkungan hukum diperingkat 27 dari 34 provinsi.

Menurunnya kebebasan pers ini diiringi dengan meningkatnya kasus-kasus kekerasan terhadap jurnalis setiap tahunnya seperti data yang dipublikasikan oleh Aliansi Jurnalis Independen (AJI) Indonesia.

Pada tahun 2021 tercatat sebanyak 41 laporan, pada 2022, laporan kekerasan meningkat menjadi 61 laporan, dan pada tahun 2023 jumlah laporan kekerasan yaitu sebanyak 78 laporan.

Beberapa bentuk kekerasan jurnalis yang dilaporkan berupa ancaman, kekerasan fisik, kekerasan seksual atau berbasis gender, pelarangan liputan, pelecehan, penghapusan hasil liputan. Kemudian penuntutan hukum, perusakan atau perampasan alat, serangan digital dan teror disertai intimidasi.

Ironisnya, beberapa diantara kekerasan terhadap jurnalis yang dilaporkan ini justru dilakukan oleh aparat pemerintah dan aparat penegak hukum (APH).

“Lalu, bagaimana kita berbicara mengenai kebebasan atau kemerdekaan pers, ketika pemerintah atau pihak berwenang masih belum paham mengenai hal ini,” kata Ketua AJI Palembang, Fajar Wiko, Rabu (6/12).

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Pemerintah atau APH yang masih belum memahami apa sebenarnya arti kemerdekaan pers ini merupakan salah satu faktor utama yang bisa menghambat kebebasan pers. Apalagi belakangan, terindikasi upaya menyandera kebebasan pers lewat kerjasama antara media dan pemerintah.

Sehingga untuk menjawabnya, harus ada komitmen bersama dari semua pihak. Pemerintah dan APH harus juga melakukan introspeksi mengenai apa yang telah mereka lakukan dalam kaitannya untuk menunjang kebebasan pers ini.

Di sisi lain, kapasitas dan kualitas pers di Sumsel, menurut Wiko juga perlu diperkuat melalui berbagai pelatihan, dan peningkatan kemampuan untuk menciptakan jurnalisme berkualitas.

“Jurnalisme berkualitas akan menghasilkan iklim pers yang berkualitas. Ini tidak ternilai harganya. Namun butuh konsistensi dan komitmen semua pihak yang saling mendukung untuk melakukannya,” kata Wiko.

Di tempat yang sama, Ketua Serikat Media Siber Indonesia (SMSI) Sumsel, Jon Heri menilai IKP ini selalu mengalami penurunan. Mirisnya, dari temuan di lapangan ada kantor instansi dan perusahaan yang bahkan menyantumkan ‘wartawan dilarang masuk’. “Itu tentunya termasuk membungkam kebebasan pers,” tegasnya.

Seharusnya instansi maupun perusahaan lebih profesional, mengingat wartawan atau jurnalis itu bekerja dinaungi UU Pers, bukan abal-abal. Karena itu, dia pun mengutarakan perlu untuk terus memperjuangkan kebebasan pers khususnya di Sumsel.

“Kemerdekaan pers harus diperjuangkan terus, tidak boleh berhenti,” tegasnya.

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